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Ovarian Apoplexy – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

what is ovarian apoplexy diseases?

It is simply, bleeding in the ovaries.

Also known as ovarian rupture.

It is a deadly gynaecological diseases and should be treated urgently and as soon as possible.

If not treated urgently it may rapidly lead to anaemia and death.

Apoplexy of the ovary is a sudden rupture or breaking of the tissues or vessels in the ovary during the rupture of a mature follicle vessel, follicular cysts or corpus leteum cyst. 

It is accompanied by haemorrhage in the ovary and lower abdominal sharp pains.

It is also accompanied by bleeding into the abdominal cavity (very dangerous).


Causes of Apoplexy of the Ovary

1. pathological changes

When there are pathological changes in the walls of the ovarian vessels.

These changes prevents normal flow of blood.

The prevention ​of normal blood flow leads to the rupture of the ovary.

2. Abdominal Trauma

Blunt abdominal trauma has been discovered to be one of the causes of of ovarian cyst rupture.

Abdominal trauma is an injury to the abdomen. This injury may be blunt or even penetrating which may cause damage to the organs of the abdomen.​

This injury may be as a result of assaults, motor vehicle collision​, recreational accidents.

3. Excessive Physical Stress

Excessive riding, weight lifting and power loads in the gym may lead to ovarian rupture.

4. vigorous sexual intercourse

In addition, vigorous sexual intercourse can cause rupture of the ovary. 

5. horse back riding

One of the possible causes of ovarian rupture is rigorous horse riding.

signs and symptoms of internal bleeding from ovarian cysts

  • Sharp pain in the lower abdomen
  • Bleeding into the abdominal cavity
  • Low blood pressure
  • Chills and Fever
  • Body weakness and dizziness
  • Increased and Faster heart rate.
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge and secretion
  • ​Severe bleeding leading to fainting

signs and symptoms of internal bleeding from ovarian cysts

Some ruptured cysts can cause lots of bleeding. Here are the signs and symptoms to look out for:

  • Vaginal bleeding or bloody discharge
  • Abdominal bloating and pressure
  • Abdominal mass
  • ​Pain in the shoulders and neck
  • Pain during bowel movement​


A Pelvic ultrasound is carried out to determine the affected ovary and sign of hemorrhage in the ovary. 

It is important to know that the symptoms of this apoplexy are similar to appendicitis a​nd ectopic pregnancy.


There are two ways apoplexy can be treated depending on the type and the symptoms:

1. Conservative Therapy​

The conservative treatment is used in cases whereby there are no internal bleeding involved.

Patients are often given bed rest, physiotherapy, ​antispasmodic.

2. surgery

In a case where internal bleeding is present, surgery is adopted via laparoscopy or laparotomy. 

The ovary may be removed if it has been excessively damaged or exploded.​

In conclusion, hemorrhage  in the ovary is a very critical condition that should be treated urgently.

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